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Vermont State Guide

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Vermont was added to the union as the Vermont State Flag14th state[1] in the year 1791. The nickname of the state is the “Green Mountain State”. Montpelier is the capital of Vermont. It is the smallest state capital in the U.S. The State ranks 49th among U.S. states in population and 43rd in land area.

Vermont Fast Facts
  • State capitol: Montpelier
  • Statehood: In 1791, as the 14th State
  • Largest city: Burlington
  • Largest metro: Burlington-South Burlington
  • Nickname: Green Mountain State
  • Official Language: English
Vermont State Symbols[2]
  • State Animal: Morgan Horse
  • State Bird: Hermit Thrush
  • State Tree: Sugar Maple
  • State Butterfly: Monarch
  • State Flower: Red Clover
  • State Insect: Honey Bee
  • State Song: These Green Mountains
  • State Mineral: Talc

Vermont State Symbols

History of Vermont

Native Americans from the Abenaki nation resided in Vermont almost for thousand years. The ancient Native Americans first visited the state hunting animals such as the mastodon and caribou. As the time passed the forests grew and the Native Americans learned to hunt smaller animals and collect herbs and berries, and prepare maple syrup. The Abenaki, also today continue many of these traditional customs.

The Republic of Vermont

Before joining the Union, the state of Vermont was an independent republic. When Vermont established its independence between 1777, and when Vermont joined the Union in 1791, as the 14th state Vermont was truly independent with its own coins and its own postal service. In the year 1609, French explorer Samuel de Champlain visited Vermont, guided by Algonquin Indians from Canada. Champlain claimed northern Vermont for France. The French established other smaller settlements and built the first fort in Vermont at Isle LaMotte. In 1763, when the British won the French and Indian War, the territory became part of what is now New England.

The first British established its colony at Fort Dummer and built as a defense against the French and their Indian allies. The English began to settle the territory, after the French and Indian War which came to be known as the New Hampshire Grants, but it was also claimed by New York.

Since both New Hampshire and New York claimed Vermont, many settlers who got land from the government of New Hampshire saw that other settlers also received the same land from the government of New York. The Green Mountain Boys in the year 1775, formed to defend the New Hampshire land grants against the New Yorkers. Ethan Allen, one of founders of Vermont, was the head of this army until he was captured by the British.

In 1777, the Green Mountain Boys became famous for their contribution in the American Revolution at the battles of Hubbardton and Bennington. The Green Mountain Boys, after these battles returned home and declared Vermont an independent republic.

In the year 1790, New York agreed to the admission of Vermont into the Union (for a payment of $30,000) and also mentioned that the New York-Vermont boundary must be the mid-channel of Lake Champlain.
Vermont became the 14th state, in 1791, fourteen years after declaring independence, the first state to be added to the Union after the original 13 colonies.

Vermont Civil war

Constitution of Vermont

Delegates from Vermont held a convention in Westminster in January 1777, and declared their independence. They named the new state "New Connecticut." Delegates again met on June 4th to write the constitution and it was during this time that they changed the name to Vermont.

The delegates started with a constitution that was written by Benjamin Franklin for Pennsylvania. Like the constitution of Pennsylvania, the constitution of Vermont described how the government was to work and established the rights of citizens. However, the people of Vermont made some significant changes to the constitution of Pennsylvania. The constitution of Vermont was the first in America to prohibit adult slavery and the first to allow all men to vote, even if they didn't have a specific income or own property. The constitution of Vermont was also the first to allow the creation of public schools.

Another group of delegates, on July 2nd, elected by the towns met in Windsor for Vermont's Constitutional Convention to debate and adopt constitution of Vermont. Meanwhile, British forces captured Fort Ticonderoga and Mount Independence on the other side of the state. American forces were chased into Vermont by the British soldiers and several people who lived on the western border of Vermont were forced to run. As they traveled slowly, the delegates were not aware about these alarming events until July 8th.

Delegates who were in this region convinced the others to disperse so that they could return to try to save their homesteads. It is said that violent thunderstorm prevented the delegates from leaving the area and this had given enough time to vote on the constitution and accept it.

Vermont History Timeline
  • 1609: Samuel de Champlain claimed Vermont for France; Lake Champlain discovered.
  • 1724: British first permanent settlement in Vermont; built Fort Drummer.
  • 1764: Vermont became part of New York, decreed by King George III.
  • 1775: Green Mountain Boys, Ethan Allen, captured Fort Ticonderoga.
  • 1777: Battle of Hubbarton, fought in Vermont; Vermont declared independence from Britain; prohibited slavery.
  • 1779: Vermont established Property rights for women.
  • 1791: Vermont declared 14th U. S. state.
  • 1805: Montpelier became capital of Vermont.
  • 1814: U. S. stopped British invasion, gained control of Lake Champlain.
  • 1849: First railroad of Vermont completed from Boston to Lake Champlain.
  • 1881: Chester Arthur, Vermont native became 21st President of the United States.
  • 1918: Women cast their vote in town elections.
  • 1923: Calvin Coolidge, Vermont native became U. S. President; gasoline tax adopted; state flag adopted.
  • 1962: First democratic governor of Vermont in over 100 years elected.
  • 1964: Last towns in Vermont got electricity - Victory, Granby and Jamaica.
  • 1985: Madeleine M. Kunin elected first woman governor of Vermont
  • 2000: Same-sex marriages approved by Vermont's assembly.
  • 2011: Tropical Storm Irene in Vermont caused major floods.
  • 2012: Peter Elliott Shumlin elected as the 81st Governor of Vermont.

Geography of Vermont

Vermont is the second largest state in New England with an area of 9,614 square miles. It is also the eighth smallest state in the nation. The state is wide at the top along the Canadian border (90.3 miles) and narrow at the bottom (41.6 miles) along the Massachusetts border. The state is 157.4 miles long. The state is bordered by New Hampshire in the east, New York in the west, Canada on the north and Massachusetts in the south.

Vermont Land Regions

The state of Vermont can be separated into six geographical land regions which are the Northeast Highlands, the Green Mountains, the Western New England Upland, the Taconic Mountains, , the Vermont Valley and the Champlain Valley.

Northeast Highlands

The Northeast Highlands are located in the northeast corner of Vermont. This land region also covers parts of New Hampshire and Maine and is characterized by Granite Mountains. Gore Mountain are the highest of these mountains in Vermont.

Western New England Upland

The Western New England Upland cover most of eastern Vermont. This area is also called the Vermont Piedmont is covered by fertile lowlands of the Connecticut River Valley. The land rises gradually from east to west to the granite hills near Barre and the area has number of lakes in the north.

Green Mountains

Most of the Green Mountain region in central Vermont is covered by the famous Green Mountains. This mountain range also supports the tallest mountains in Vermont. Mount Mansfield is the highest peak in Vermont. This area is also an important source of minerals such as marble, granite, talc and slate. It is also the center of the Vermont tourism industry.

Vermont Valley

This area is a small trip of land in Western Vermont. Vermont Valley comprises of small rivers and river valleys and stretches from the border of Massachusetts in the south into central Vermont. The Waloomsac and Baton Kill rivers are seen in the Vermont Valley.

Taconic Mountains

This region covers a narrow strip in southwestern Vermont and extends from Massachusetts. Taconic Mountains are characterized by swift streams, mountains and beautiful lakes. The mountains that are found in this region are Equinox Mountain, Dorset Peak, Little Equinox Mountain, Mother Myrick Mountain and Bear Mountain.

Champlain Valley

Lake Champlain is bordered by the Champlain Valley. This area is also called Vermont Lowland, is a fertile farmland. Burlington, Vermont's largest city is located in this region. Apple orchards, Dairy farms, , hay, wheat, corn, oats, are found in the Champlain Valley.


The Climate of Vermont is humid continental. It is also the seventh coldest state in the nation. Vermont has four seasons which are winter, Spring, Summer and Fall.

Winter in Vermont begins in the month of December and lasts till March. However, snow and cold weather can arrive sooner and stay much later. The amount of snow varies from one region of the state to another and from winter to winter in Vermont.

The grip of winter begins to weaken, towards the end of March. Rain as well as Melting snow can cause streams and rivers to overflow. During this time of the year Vermont often experience floods.

Summers are pleasant in Vermont. The summers begin in June and ends in September. Vermont experiences high humidity during these days. The summers also bring along with them hail, wind, and rain.

Autumn or fall is the most beautiful season in Vermont. This is the time of the year when the flowers bloom everywhere and leaves change color.

Forest Service in Vermont

The Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation of Vermont is responsible for the management and conservation of the forest resource of Vermont, operation and maintenance of the State Park system and support of outdoor recreation for Vermonters and also visitors. The forest of Vermont covers about 4,591,281 acres of land.

The Green Mountains and Finger Lakes National Forests are two separate forests but they share the same administrative headquarters in Rutland, Vermont. The total land area of the Green Mountains and Finger Lakes National Forests is over 416,000 acres that is spread throughout southwestern and southern Vermont, and the Finger Lakes region of New York State.

Green Mountains and Finger Lakes National Forests

The Green Mountain National Forest (GMNF) covers more than 400,000 acres of land in southwestern and central Vermont that forms the largest contiguous public land area in the State.
The Finger Lakes National Forest is an administrative unit of the Green Mountain National Forest. The total area covered by the Finger Lakes National Forest is 16,212-acre. This forest is located on a ridge between Seneca and Cayuga Lakes in the Finger Lakes region of New York State.

Contact Details
Green Mountain & Finger Lakes National Forest
National Forests
Supervisor's Office
231 North Main Street
Rutland, VT 05701
Phone no: 1-802-747-6700

Know more about: Green Mountain & Finger Lakes National Forest

Vermont State Forests

The State Forests in Vermont provide a wide range of recreational activities for runners, walkers, bikers, motorists and horseback riders. The following are the state Forests in Vermont:
  • LR Jones State Forest
  • Downer State Forest
  • Hapgood State Forest
  • Camels Hump State Forest
  • Lyndon State Forest
  • Townshend State ForestVermont State Foresta
  • Aitken State Forest
  • Arlington State Forest
  • West Rutland State Forest
  • CC Putnam State Forest
  • Mt Mansfield State Forest
  • Proctor-Piper State Forest
  • Groton State Forest
  • Coolidge State Forest
  • Granville Gulf Reservation
  • Willoughby State Forest
  • Washington State Forest
  • Thetford Hill State Forest
  • Williams River State Forest
  • Roxbury State Forest
  • Mt Carmel State Forest

Read more: Vermont State Forests

Important Mountain Ranges in Vermont

  • The Green Mountains in Vermont are the oldest mountains in New England. Mount Mansfield, highest mountain in Vermont is located in the green mountains.
  • The Taconic Mountains in Vermont are a major range of peaks located in southwestern Vermont which extend north to Brandon.
  • Belvidere Mountain is located in the northern Vermont mountain.
  • Killington Peak is the second highest peak in Vermont and is a home of the Killington ski area.
  • Lincoln Mountain in Vermont is a large mountain with many peaks.
Geography Quick Facts
  • Total area: 9,614 square miles
  • Longitude: 71 degree 28'W to 73 degree 26'W
  • Latitude: 42 degree 44'N to 45 degree 0' 43"N
  • Highest elevation: Mount Mansfield (4,393 feet)
  • Lowest elevation: Lake Champlain - shore (95 feet)
  • Major Rivers: Connecticut, Otter Creek, Winooski,
  • Major Mountain Ranges: Green Mountains, Taconic Mountains
  • Major Lakes: Champlain, Memphremagog, Bomoseen

Economy of Vermont

Several sectors play a major role in the economic growth of Vermont. The unemployment rate in Vermont is among the lowest in the nation. Agriculture, tourism and industries in Vermont contribute to the economy of the state.

Vermont Economy Fast Facts[3]
  • Gross domestic product (GDP) in (millions of current dollars) of all industry total in 2013 - $ 29,509
  • Vermont’s per capita real GDP in 2013 - $ 44,241
  • Vermont’s per capita personal income in 2014 - $ 47,330
  • Vermont’s unemployment rate in 2015- 3.8%

Agriculture in Vermont
Economy of Vermont
  • The state is the largest producer of maple syrup in the U.S.
  • Vermont has about one half of the dairy farms in New England.
  • Major Crops in Vermont are maple products, Hay, apples, and sweet corn.
  • Important livestock in Vermont are chicken eggs, beef cattle and calves, hogs and turkeys.

Industries in Vermont

  • Vermont is home to the North America’s first marble quarry and world’s largest “deep hole” granite quarry.
  • The most important mined product in Vermont is granite.
  • Vermont's most important manufacturing activity is the production of electrical equipment.
  • Another significant part of the economy of Vermont is the creative industries like advertising, art and antiques markets, architecture, crafts, design, film and video, designer fashion and many more.

Tourism in Vermont

Tourism is also an important part of the economy of Vermont. The tourism industry also contributes a large share to the economic development of the state. Vermont has plenty of places to visit and most of them are unique and different from the places one can see other states.

The top places to visit in Vermont are:

Lake Champlain Cruises & Ferries

Business Quick facts

  • Private nonfarm establishments, 2012: 21,1611
  • Private nonfarm employment, 2012: 265,4601
  • Private nonfarm employment, percent change, 2011-2012: 0.5%
  • Nonemployer establishments, 2012: 59,836
  • Total number of firms, 2007: 78,729
  • Manufacturers shipments, 2007 ($1000): 10,751,461
  • Merchant wholesaler sales, 2007 ($1000): 5,121,694
  • Retail sales, 2007 ($1000): 9,310,119
  • Retail sales per capita, 2007: $15,005
  • Accommodation and food services sales, 2007 ($1000): 1,367,630
  • Building permits, 2013: 1,499

Demographics of Vermont

The population of Vermont as of 2014 estimation by the U.S. Census Bureau was 626,562. The 2014 census reflected a hike of 0.13% since the year 2010.

Vermont Population Quick Facts[4]
  • Population, 2014 estimate: 626,562
  • Population, 2013 estimate: 626,855
  • Population, 2010 (April 1) estimates base: 625,745
  • Population, percent change - April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014: 0.1%
  • Population, percent change - April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013: 0.2%
  • Population, 2010: 625,741
  • Persons under 5 years, percent, 2013: 4.9%
  • Persons under 18 years, percent, 2013: 19.6%
  • Persons 65 years and over, percent, 2013: 16.4%
  • Female persons, percent, 2013: 50.7%
Vermont Racial Groups
  • White alone, percent, 2013 (a): 95.2%
  • Black or African American alone, percent, 2013 (a): 1.2%
  • American Indian and Alaska Native alone, percent, 2013 (a): 0.4%
  • Asian alone, percent, 2013 (a): 1.4%
  • Two or More Races, percent, 2013: 1.8%
  • Hispanic or Latino, percent, 2013 (b): 1.7%
  • White alone, not Hispanic or Latino, percent, 2013: 93.8%

Transportation in Vermont

The Vermont Agency of Transportation is an intermodal agency that maintains the existing infrastructure and also develops an integrated transportation network that includes air, rail, public transit, and bike/pedestrian systems

The road transportation in Vermont consists of several state routes, interstate highways, bridges and tunnels. Vermont today has approximately 320 miles of interstate, 14,200 miles of roadway, over 2,700 miles of toll-free state highways, and over 11,000 miles of municipal roads. The major Interstate Highways in Vermont are: Interstate 89 (I-89), Interstate 91 (I-91), Interstate 93 (I-93) and Interstate 189 (I-189). The ten regional bus companies of Vermont make up a network that helps the people to get around in the community and across the state. Bicycle and Pedestrian are also a very common mode of transportation in Vermont. The Bicycle and Pedestrian Program primary aim is to give safe and convenient facilities to the people of Vermont, who wish alternative transportation opportunities.

Vermont Transportation

Air transport is an essential gateway of Vermont that serves the tourists and locals from around the globe. It is an important means of transport that offers all round efficient and easy connectivity. Vermont altogether has 16 public use airports and 10 state-owned airports. The two primary airport in Vermont are Burlington International Airport and Rutland Southern Vermont Regional Airport.

Rail Transportation is also an important means of transportation in Vermont. Rail transportation in Vermont consists of both the movement of people (passenger rail) and movement of goods (freight rail). Vermont comprises of 748 miles of railroads and 453 of the railroads are owned by the State of Vermont.The state also operates together with Amtrak operates passenger trains in Vermont. The rail freight network of Vermont is a major driver of economic activity.

The waterways of Vermont play a vital role in the economic development of the state. The ferry service in Vermont serve as the major source of commute across the state.

Read more: Transportation in Vermont

Government of Vermont

The Vermont Government is a republican form of Government. The Government of Vermont is divided into three branches the Executive branch, the Legislative branch and the Judiciary branch.

The Executive Branch of Vermont consists of the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, State Treasurer, Secretary of State and State Auditor. The Governor is the head of the Executive Branch. The Lieutenant Governor is the second highest elected official after the Governor.

The state legislature of Vermont is the Vermont General Assembly. It is a bicameral body comprising of the Seal of VermontVermont House of Representatives and the Vermont Senates. The Vermont House of Representatives is the Lower house of Legislative Branch of Vermont. The House consists of 150 members. The Speaker of the house is the Presiding officer of the House. The Vermont State Senate is the upper house of the Legislative Branch of Vermont. The House consists of 30 Senators. The Lieutenant Governor is the President of the Senate and is the presiding officer of the senate.

The Judiciary branch of Vermont applies law and regulations and also ensures justice in the state. The Vermont Judiciary consists of Vermont Supreme court and Vermont Superior Courts. In the Vermont court system, the Vermont Supreme Court is the highest court. The Supreme Court has the power to review decisions made by lower courts.


The Department of Taxes of Vermont is responsible to collect proper amount of tax revenue in efficient and timely manner to pay for the goods and services the citizens receive from State government. Major Taxes administered by the Tax Department of Vermont are: Business Entity tax, Income Tax, Cigarette and Tobacco Taxes, Corporation Income Tax, Estate and Gift Taxes, Fiduciary Tax, Franchise Tax and Fuel Gross Receipts.

Read more: Government of Vermont

Health Care in Vermont

The Vermont State Department of Health serves as the major agency for public health policy and advocacy in the state. The primary objective of the state is to protect and promote optimal health for all the people of the Healthcare in Vermontstate.

Hospitals in Vermont are well equipped with all the modern facilities, efficiently staffed and provide 24-hour inpatient care, including nursing, medical, surgical, laboratory, anesthesia, radiology, child care, pharmacy services, mental well being, maternity care and many more services. Some major hospitals in Vermont are: Brattleboro Memorial Hospital, The University of Vermont Health Network, North Country Hospital and Northwestern Medical Center.

Several organizations in Vermont are dedicated to provide organ and blood to those in need. The organizations are committed and striving to meet the transplant needs of the people of Vermont. American Red Cross Biomedical Services plays an important role in the health care system of the United States.

The Health insurance plans not only protects physical health, but also financial health and peace of mind. Health insurance coverage helps the people to stay healthy by including preventive health services like routine check-ups, flu shots, and blood pressure screenings with insurance through Vermont Health Connect. Medicaid is a government health insurance program for the people of Vermont. The Program is for people who are blind or disabled, seniors 65 or older, pregnant women, children, and parents.

Read more: Health Care in Vermont

Education in Vermont

Education system in Vermont comprises of public and private schools that includes the Vermont State Colleges, the University of Vermont, private colleges, secondary and primary schools in Vermont. The State Board and Agency of Education of Vermont is responsible to provide support, leadership, and oversight to ensure to make sure that the Vermont public education system enables each student to be successful.

Contact DetailsEducation in Vermont
Vermont Agency of Education
219 North Main Street, Suite 402
Barre, VT 05641
Phone no: (802) 479-1030
Website: http://education.vermont.gov/

Mentioned below are names of some universities and colleges in Vermont.

Vermont Interesting facts
  • Vermont was the first State to recognize gay couples legally.
  • The state has 808 lakes and ponds and more than 7,000 miles of streams and rivers.
  • Vermont has more than 100 covered bridges
  • Vermont is the second smallest state in population.
  • Vermont has the least amount of violent crimes out of all 50 states.
  • Montpelier is the smallest state capital in the nation
  • Vermont City Nicknames: Barre:Granite Center of the World, Bennington: Vermont's Most Historic Town, Burlington: Queen City of Vermont orYear Round Vacationland, Montpelier: Green Mountain City, Rutland: Marble City, Springfield: Cradle of Industry.

  1. Vermont Statehood
  2. Vermont State Symbols
  3. Economy Fast Facts
  4. Vermont Population
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